Brownfield vs. Greenfield Development with Module Federation

In this documentation page, we’ll explore two different approaches to implementing Module Federation in your projects: Brownfield and Greenfield development. This guide is intended for advanced users and will provide a thorough understanding of the differences, advantages, and drawbacks of each approach.


Module Federation is a powerful tool in Webpack 5 that enables you to share dependencies and modules across applications, providing significant performance improvements and enabling the creation of distributed applications.

When considering implementing Module Federation in your projects, you’ll often come across two primary development approaches depending on the state of your current project:

  • Brownfield Development: Integrating Module Federation into an existing application.

  • Greenfield Development: Building a new application from scratch with Module Federation in mind.

This guide aims to provide an in-depth understanding of both development strategies to help you make an informed decision on whether to start from scratch, or lean more towards a refactoring-way.

Brownfield Development with Module Federation

Brownfield development refers to integrating Module Federation into an existing application. This can be a complex process, as it may involve refactoring existing code and adapting your application’s architecture to work with Module Federation.


  • Leverage existing code and resources: You can continue building on your existing application, without needing to start from scratch.

  • Incremental improvements: You can gradually introduce Module Federation into your application, improving performance and code sharing over time.


  • Refactoring existing code: You may need to refactor parts of your existing application to accommodate Module Federation. This can be time-consuming and may introduce temporary instability.

  • Potential architectural changes: Your existing application architecture might not be optimized for Module Federation, which may require significant changes to fully leverage its potential.

  • Dependency management: Ensuring consistency and compatibility across shared dependencies can be challenging in Brownfield projects, as different parts of the application may rely on various dependency versions.

Best Practices

  • Analyze your existing application: Identify the areas that would benefit most from Module Federation and prioritize them.

  • Plan your refactoring: Develop a detailed plan to refactor your application and integrate Module Federation. Consider breaking the process into smaller, manageable tasks.

  • Test thoroughly: Ensure you have a robust testing strategy in place to catch potential issues during the refactoring process.

Refactoring Example

Greenfield Development with Module Federation

Greenfield development refers to building a new application from scratch, with Module Federation in mind from the beginning. This approach allows you to design and architect your application to take full advantage of Module Federation’s capabilities.


  • Optimized architecture: Design your application architecture to fully leverage Module Federation from the start, maximizing its benefits.

  • Easier dependency management: Plan and manage dependencies with Module Federation in mind, ensuring compatibility and consistency across your application.

  • Faster implementation: Since you’re starting from scratch, there’s no need to refactor existing code, reducing potential complexity.


  • Uncertain ROI: As you’re starting with a new application, it may be difficult to estimate the exact return on investment (ROI) of implementing Module Federation.

  • Potential for over-optimization: In an effort to fully leverage Module Federation, you might over-optimize the architecture, which could lead to unnecessary complexity.

Best Practices

  • Establish clear goals: Clearly define the objectives for your Greenfield project, including the expected benefits of implementing Module Federation.

  • Design with scalability in mind: Ensure that your application architecture is flexible and scalable, allowing you to take full advantage of Module Federation as your project grows.

  • Maintain simplicity: Avoid over-complicating your application design to maximize the benefits of Module Federation. Focus on simplicity and maintainability.


Both Brownfield and Greenfield development approaches offer unique advantages and challenges when implementing Module Federation in your projects. The right choice for your project depends on your specific needs, resources, and goals.

For existing applications that could benefit from Module Federation, Brownfield development may be the most suitable approach. However, be prepared for potential refactoring and architectural changes.

On the other hand, if you’re starting a new project and want to build an application optimized for Module Federation from the outset, Greenfield development might be the better option. This approach allows you to create an architecture that fully leverages Module Federation capabilities while ensuring easier dependency management.

Ultimately, the decision between Brownfield and Greenfield development depends on your project’s unique requirements and constraints. Carefully consider the advantages and challenges of each approach and adopt best practices to maximize the benefits of implementing Module Federation in your applications. With a thoughtful strategy in place, you can harness the power of Module Federation to create efficient, high-performance distributed systems.